Proposed Method of Treatment

Water Refilling Stations can be very tricky as to how they are set-up. Being the leader in our industry, we want to disclose how we treat the water. Our water refilling stations use the latest Reverse Osmosis Technology  and the best pre-filtration media in the world.

The systems proposed consists of a number of treatment stages as outlined below:

1.1. Multi-Media Filtration: Raw water is initially treated with AFM® (Activated Filter Media) as opposed to silica sand, manganese and anthracite, which only removes suspended matter down to 10~20μ size and some organics. AFM® Grade 1 guarantees 98% filtration down to sub-5μ (smaller than the tiniest of hair). Sand and other medias eventually become bio-filter which leads to water channeling. Other issues involve increase usage of water for backwashing and rinsing purposes. With AFM®, you save on 50% backwash water and 20% electricity because of it. No unfiltered water will ever pass thru AFM®. And the best part, AFM® will last for more than 20 years in your filters. To know more about AFM®, go to

1.2.Carbon Media Filtration: Water from AFM® filter is treated with granular activated carbon filtration to remove some organics from the water. The Carbon removes foul taste and odor. It also eliminates yellowish and brownish discoloration brought by inorganic contaminants. The longer the water is in contact with the carbon, the more adsorption or catalytic reactions that will take place. There are multiple types of activated carbon in the market. We offer activated carbon with iodine content of more than 1000 while market is littered with <500. Higher content of iodine is essential to removing chlorine. Where others only claim to remove chlorine, we guarantee 100% removal of chlorine.

1.3.Water Softener System: This process consists of a Softening and Conditioning Process. It is composed of Resin Beads which attracts mineral contents and converts Hard Water to Soft Water; The Brine Tank (salt compounds) serves as the storage of the industrial salt for the automatic regeneration of the resin beads. We use only the finest cationic resin beads manufactured by Purolite®. It gives 40% more softening area than the other resin beads and has 30% longer filter runtimes.

1.4.Micro Filtration: A five micron cartridge filter is used as a safeguard to ensure that any fines or particulates are removed from the water. It acts as a final barrier to solids, which would otherwise damage the RO elements.

1.5.Reverse Osmosis (RO): Pre-treated raw water is then pumped through to the CENTRAL PURIFICATION SYSTEM (RO). RO Technology involves using a high pressure pump to force a portion of the feed water through a semi-permeable membrane. The amount of permeate product water produced varies directly with the feed water pressure and temperature. Since the bulk of the product water contaminants are left on the feed water upstream side of the membrane and would over time, foul or scale the membrane, a portion of the feed water is directed to drain. This stream is called reject water, and the amount of reject water required varies with the amount and type of the contaminants in the water. Each specific feed water source will have a maximum recovery rate or conversion. (i.e. Amount of permeate product water produced divided by the amount of feed water entering the RO unit). The estimated conversion factor determined for this system is 0.35. Our attention to detail helps us use the correct RO element for your location's source water requirement. We use specially designed RO element configuration system to give the expected performance and purity of water you deserve from us.

1.6.Ultraviolet Sterilization: The purified water is passed through a UV sterilizer as a final safeguard against bacteria. Bacterial growth in any high purity water treatment plant will increase the frequency of equipment cleans. Our systems has proportionally sized UV systems that ensures that no bacteria/virus/pathogens passes thru.

1.7.Treated Water Quality: The multi-media and activated carbon filters will remove suspended particulate matter to <5μ size and chlorine and dissolved organics in the water. The micron cartridge filter will remove any remaining fines and particulates.

The equipment offered includes IWSI Company’s standard RO Plant, and further details will be provided in the final contract

We highlight some important features below:

2.1.Pre-treatment: The AFM® filters, activated carbon filters, and ion exchange resin beads offered includes a FRP vessel and UPVC pipe works to eliminate problems of corrosion and provide along life with minimum maintenance.

2.2.Central Purification System (Reverse Osmosis - RO): The IWSI RO unit is a packaged unit, including FILMTEC (or equivalent brands) Spiral Wound Thin Film Composite Membranes, high pressure pump and computer logic control. Membranes are housed in FRP pressure vessel, which provide strength and durability. The Membrane included with the RO unit provides minimum potential for fouling due to the spiral wound design and good resistance to cleaning chemicals. The control panel includes instruments for monitoring permeate and concentrate flow rate, pressure and water quality. A low pressure switch is provided on the inlet to protect the high pressure pump. Other features of the RO unit will be provided in the Operating Manual and shall be discussed in details during operation and training. 

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